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Faulty Mechanical Keyboard: Identifying "defective Ground Connection on PCB

Good effort, but my hunch is a lifted pad on the row enable from one of these pins. If you have a 10x eye piece, from a microscope , or really good eyes, you might see something, or press down with a wood or plastic tool gently on pads. or even your finger pressure. Otherwise a cracked via or trace may be impossible to find without locating the row enable track on either side. All it takes is a few "nm" to open from IS and it can bridge with capacitance with scan pulses. ( explaining possibly why restart affected results.) Otherwise expect ESD damage.... N.G.Solder defects usually are 98% of all mfg defects and intermittent ones are harder to find. Usually IS insufficient solder, SB , solder balls , or BR, bridge are the notations we used in Contract Mfg. but large panels can crack vias from excessive warp or improper depanelization stress.Keep up the good effort. With practice you can fix mine. ( I used to twist some to get working momentary (not recommended).

Faulty Mechanical Keyboard: Identifying

1. Can a CPU be used without a motherboard or PCB? If yes, how?

Can a CPU be used without a motherboard or PCB? If yes, how?Use your imagination.Have you ever found a table that wobbled because one leg was too short? A CPU might be perfect to fit under that leg.If you drill a hole through a CPU, when you go fishing, you can use it for a sinker. If you have 4 CPU's you can glue them together to make a coaster.These are off the top of my head. Give enough time, you can find a lot of ways to use a CPU without a motherboard or a printed-circuit board

2. Which course should l choose after 12 having PCB stream?

Hi! Look at this.All the best!!!

Faulty Mechanical Keyboard: Identifying

3. how to represent a bridge in eagle pcb schematics?

Eagle wants you to put junction points where two lines connect each other. Otherwise gives a warning in ERC (Electrical Rule Check). I suggest you this notation;This way Eagle becomes sure, if it's a connection or just a different net passing over. To put junction points you can use 'Junction' from toolbar. But if you draw your nets with 'Net' tool rather than 'Wire' tool junctions will be automatically put

4. What are the possible reasons that a PCB doesn't work?

There is nothing more frustrating than spending many hours on a circuit and when you power it up......it does not work. After de-bugging more than three thousand circuits, I have come up with a check list of the most common problems with experimental circuits.This is the order in which I most often try to debug a circuit:1. Bad Connection Or No ConnectionnA-You left out a wire or connection. It is easy to leave out a connection. Double check all connections, and then triple check.B-There is a short. After soldering a circuit, I use a magnifying glass to check for solder joints or frayed wire ends that could be shorting. I once glued up a circuit with conductive glue (pic 2) and checked the circuit a dozen times and it still would not work. So I finally pulled out an ohmmeter and checked for shorts. It turned out a thin smear of black conductive glue was shorting out one of the program pins to ground. The black glue on the black Picaxe IC was all but invisible.A bad solder joint can occur, but it is rare. Impatience--not heating up the joint enough as you solder, can create a high resistance connection. Make sure your solder joints end up clean and shiny. Unless it is a power connection, the additional resistance will usually not be a problem.2. Wrong ConnectionnYou are usually looking at the top of the circuit board and soldering the bottom of the circuit board using a top view schematic. It is easy to get visually turned around. When there is a wrong connection, this can require a new visualization of the situation. To avoid the same perceptual errors, I often turn the schematic and the circuit board upside down from the way I was looking at it and then check again to see that all the connections are valid. Perceiving from a different point of view can reveal flaws.3. Noise In The Circuit Or Near ItnA-Avoid running inputs next to outputs. Pulsating outputs such as PWM can transfer through induction to inputs and create an erratic circuit. Amplifiers and micro controllers are especially sensitive.A really long input wire can act as an antenna and pick up noise. In that case you can use a grounded, shielded cable. When I was working on the sparky robot (pic 3), I got the circuit working well when it was separate from the main body. As soon as I mounted it with the body, it started to work totally inconsistently. It turned out the varying magnetic field from the motors was occasionally resetting the micro controller. I tried a grounded metal plate above the motors, but it had no effect. I ended raising the micro controller an inch away so that it was unaffected by the noise from the motors.Working on the ant robot (Pic 4), I connected an infrared detector to the micro controller and it worked perfectly on the breadboard. Once I connected it on the ant robot with everything on board, it went crazy. It turned out the sharp infrared detector was creating noise that incapacitated the Picaxe micro controller. A 20 uf decoupling capacitor across the power line, near the infrared detector, solved the problem. B-When you can, it is a good idea to have two power supplies that share a common ground. One for the control circuit and another one for the motors, servos, or other noisy loads. When I built the cubic inch robot (pic 5 ) I was able to run everything off one battery in a very tightly wired circuit, but I was lucky to get a way with it. C- With logic circuits and micro controllers, leaving a floating input can render your circuit useless. Inputs should be grounded or connected to V through a 4.7 to 10K ohm resistor. Otherwise the input can act as an antenna and pick up spurious signals from house hold AC or other sources. 4. Bad Power SupplynMake sure your power supply is providing power to the right places and is not being over strained. If the power supply is inadequate to the task, it can drop in voltage and reset micro controllers or make other components erratic. Batteries, under no load, can be measured and have the proper voltage, but when connected to the circuit, the voltage can drop enough to make the circuit useless. Measure battery voltage under the actual circuit load.A badly filtered power supply can also create noise and cause problems with sensitive circuits. A large value capacitor 20- 200 uf near the power supply can reduce the voltage ripple. 5. OverheatingnIf the circuit is on and a transistor, resistor, or IC is too hot to touch and you cannot keep your finger on it for several seconds, something is wrong. Such components can normally operate somewhat warm--but not hot. You need a higher wattage resistor or you are overloading your transistor or IC with too much current. 6. Wrong Design AssumptionsnWith experimental circuits we make a lot of assumptions. Sometime we can get away with it sometimes not.I have often underestimated the current that small servos and motors require resulting in power supplies overheating or shutting down. If size is not an issue, allow more room than you think you need to fit the main components. Packing too tight can make soldering difficult and slow and increase the chance of noise problems between components. Pic 1 was hard to solder because I was trying to fit a remote control on a ring. It is tempting to design as if the circuit is going to work first time every time. That is rarely the case. A better way is to design with the assumption you will have to debug. Design in connection points such as pins, sockets, or temporary wires that give you access to measure current and voltage on the actual circuit. 7. Bad ComponentsnWith today's high quality mass produced electronic components, new components that do not work are extremely rare. However it is fairly easy to overheat a component while soldering and damage it. Transistors, diodes, ICs, and to a lesser degree, resistors and capacitors are susceptible to overheating while soldering. I once connected a three way AC circuit for a house light. It consistently tripped the breaker and after an hour of checking and double checking and triple checking the connections, I had no clue. Eventually, I pulled out the meter and determined that the brand new three way switch had an internal short. What are the possible reasons that a PCB does not work?

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Dry Goods: Black Axis, Red Axis, Tea Axis, Green Axis, Which Mechanical Keyboard Is Suitable for You
As a hard-working girl who often needs to stay up late to write code, the mechanical keyboard is the thing that can most improve the job happiness of the kicked sister. There is no one!Small partners who have not contacted this kind of equipment usually have two questions: first, the mechanical keyboard is so expensive. Is it necessary to buy it? Second, how to choose this thing? So many dazzling parameters don't know what to say. Today, the kicked girl will share with you the introduction of mechanical keyboard.First of all, before deciding to buy a mechanical keyboard, we'd better find out if it's necessary for us to buy a mechanical keyboard?We have to talk about "membrane keyboard" first. It often appears in contrast to mechanical keyboards and is often used as a negative case. Injustice !In fact, membrane keyboard & mechanical keyboard only faces different audiences. We can't simply say who is good and who is bad.The membrane keyboard feels ordinary and its service life is relatively short compared with the mechanical keyboard, but it is enough for students who do not have high requirements for the keyboard. Moreover, most of them are also beautiful in price.There is an independent mechanical shaft under each key of the mechanical keyboard. Compared with the membrane keyboard, it has better hand feel and longer service life. Generally speaking, the price will be less expensive!To sum up, if you use the keyboard for a long time and have high requirements for hand feeling, it is still necessary to enter a mechanical keyboard.Secondly, if you have decided to buy it, the second question is, what kind of mechanical keyboard is suitable for you?A mechanical keyboard is usually composed of shell, key cap, PCB board, shaft body and connecting wire. The kicked sister will teach you to "recognize the axis". As long as the axis is selected properly, it will be 80% appropriate!At present, the mainstream is still the German cherry axis, among which the most representative ones are black axis, red axis, green axis and tea axis. How to distinguish them? You can recognize it by looking at the color.Black axisStraight up and down, no paragraph feeling, because the pressure is heavy in grams, it will be a little more laborious to press down compared with other axes. The black axis is completely silent and trigger sensitive. It is very suitable for playing games. There should be cheers from chicken eaters here. If you are a strong diamond palm, you can also choose the black axis to type.Red axisMany mechanical keyboard enthusiasts will eventually choose a top-level red axis to reduce their fever. Its structure is similar to that of the black axis, and there is no sense of paragraph. Because the number of grams of pressure is much lighter, the red axis is "less powerful" than the black axis, and the feel is relatively soft. Also completely silent, games and office are easy to use.Green axis"Click click" is the feeling of the green shaft striking. It has a strong sense of paragraph. It is the shaft with the characteristics of the mechanical keyboard! The kicked sister put one at home. It's not too cool to work overtime. But note that although the green axis is fun, the crackling sound it makes is pleasant to listen to yourself, and others may be noise. If you choose to use it in the office or at home in the dead of night, be careful to be beaten up by your wifeTea axisAlso known as the "universal axis". It has a sense of paragraph. It is not as soft as the red axis or as "noisy" as the green axis. It feels light. It is suitable for the transition from membrane keyboard to mechanical keyboard. This is also the most commonly used shaft for kicking girls, mainly in the office.Well, after reading the above, I believe you have a preliminary understanding of the mechanical keyboard. If you have decided to buy one, the kicked sister strongly recommends that you go to the keyboard area of the physical store, stretch out your little hand and knock, and personally feel the different shaft bodies. After all, what the kicked sister said is her own and other people's feelings. The actual use is still your own duck.
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